Brain eating amoeba? How to protect yourself

News reports say a parasite known as the “brain-eating amoeba” has claimed its second young American victim this month.

Christian Strickland, a 9-year-old from Henrico County in Virginia contracted an infection after visiting a fishing camp in his state. He died of meningitis on August 5.

This week, health department officials confirmed that the deadly amoeba–officially known as “Naegleria fowleri”–was to blame.

“Sadly, we have had a Naegleria infection in Virginia this summer,” Dr.  Keri Hall of the Virginia Department of Health, told The Richmond Times-Dispatch. “It’s important that  people be aware of . . . safe swimming messages.”

Earlier this month, Courtney Nash succumbed to the brain-eating amoeba after diving off a dock into the St. John’s River at her grandmother’s house in Florida.

The single-celled organisms go by the scientific name Naegleria folweri, and  are believed to have infected the teens as they swam in lakes or rivers.

Are the bugs found in swimming pools too? How do they get into the brain? And  what can be done to limit the risk? For answers to those and other questions  about Naegleria folweri.

Exactly where are the amoeba found?

In the U.S., they’re typically found in freshwater sources in southern  states. In addition to lakes and rivers, these include hot springs, warn water  runoff from industrial plants, poorly maintained swimming pools, and water  heaters kept at temperatures below 117 degrees. The amoeba can also be found in  soil.

How does infection occur?

Typically, Naegleria fowleri amoeba infect people through the nose. Once they  have a toehold there, they travel up to the brain, where they destroy tissue.  The infection typically occurs when people go swimming in lakes and rivers and  other surface water, especially in warm weather.

Can drinking water cause infection?

Drinking contaminated water does not lead to infection. In very rare  instances, however, people become infected with Naegleria fowleri by ingesting  water from swimming pools that don’t have enough chlorine. Swimming in a  properly maintained pool cannot lead to infection with Naegleria fowleri.

Can the infection be passed from person to person?

No, you can’t catch Naegleria folweri from another person.

What are the symptoms?

Initial symptoms, which start within the first week of infection, include  headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, and stiff neck. Later symptoms include  confusion, loss of balance, seizures, and hallucinations. Death typically occurs  within 12 days.

Is the infection treatable?

In the lab, several drugs are effective against Naegleria fowleri. But it’s  not clear whether they work in humans. Almost every person to have become  infected has died. Anyone who experiences symptoms should seek medical attention  promptly – especially if he/she has recently been swimming in warm  freshwater.

How can I reduce my risk?

Always assume that there is a low level of risk anytime you swim, dive, or  water-ski in warm freshwater in the South. Hold your nose shut or use nose clips  when you go into the water. And avoid digging in or stirring up sediment in  potentially infectious bodies of water.

Thirty-two infections of the parasite were reported in the U.S. between 2001 and 2010, CDC spokeswoman Christine Pearson told The Lookout, adding that infections are almost always deadly. That included two children in Phoenix who are thought to have contracted it through the domestic water supply in 2002.

Sources:

http://news.yahoo.com

http://www.cbsnews.com